Car manufacturing made easy

How all the parts come together to make a car Cartoon films portray car factories with lumps of raw iron going in one end and gleaming automobiles purring away at the other. It is of course a false image. Cars are not made all in one place. But the reality is scarcely less remarkable, for […]

CURBING THE STOCK EXCHANGE thieves and gangstars

CURBING THE STOCK EXCHANGE CHEATS Insider dealer New York financier Ivan Boesky (centre) seen leaving the Feder al Court in Manhattan in 1987. After admitting using inside information about company mergers for his own profit, he was fined $100 million and jailed for three years. From the earliest days of stock exchanges, people have attempted […]

How they make razor blades sharp

Every 24 hours, as many as 25,000 hairs grow up to half a millimetre on the face of the average adult male. The modern razor blade, honed to perfection, can cut its way through this stubble forest to give a close, smooth and safe shave. Men began removing their fast-growing facial hair thousands of years […]

How PTFE is made

PTFE is made from chlorodifluoromethane, a widely used refrigerant liquid known as Freon 22. The American engineer Dr Roy Plunkett discovered that heating Freon 22 produces the gas tetrafluoroethene. Under a pressure of about 45-50 atmospheres and in the presence of a peroxide catalyst, this gas undergoes a chemical change, and the result is PTFE […]